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In a review of learning and teaching research in higher education, Entwistle (2008) cautions against attempts to identify ‘best practice’ in teaching and suggests that research-based efforts
to support one method over another cannot be empirically substantiated. He does suggest, however, that there are
“ways of thinking about pedagogy that can be generalized” (p.29) and acted upon. For Entwistle,
the way of thinking that emerges involves seeing the purpose
of higher education as going beyond the acquisition of knowledge and skills, to recognize that for the demands of current society and employment, graduates need to have acquired a personal conceptual understanding of the main ideas and ways of thinking in their area of study so as to experience ‘learning that lasts’. Only this will provide the  exibility in applying knowledge,
skills and understanding that will suf ce at a time of rapid change and ‘super-complexity’ in dealing with emergent issues and new problems (p.30).
We would agree with this assertion. Our goal in this document has not been to advocate for one ‘best way’ to teach. We have identi ed a number of common design elements inherent in RRU programs. None of these methods, on their own, are effective
in supporting high-quality student learning. We contend that
it is how these elements work together in the service of authentic and relevant learning that create engaging and relevant experiences for today’s and tomorrow’s students at RRU.
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